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世界名胜地名中英对照
浅谈英语中“似是而非”的尴尬
专利相关词汇英语翻译
《孙子兵法》军争篇第七 军争篇
《孙子兵法》虚实篇第六  虚实篇
《孙子兵法》势篇第五 势篇
《孙子兵法》形篇第四 形篇
《孙子兵法》谋攻篇第三 谋攻篇
《孙子兵法》作战篇第二 作战篇
孙子兵法之 计篇

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《孙子兵法》谋攻篇第三 谋攻篇
孙子曰:凡用兵之法,

全国为上,破国次之﹔

全军为上,破军次之﹔

全旅为上,破旅次之﹔

全卒为上,破卒次之﹔

全伍为上,破伍次之。

是故百战百胜,非善之善也﹔

不战而屈人之兵,善之善者也。

故上兵伐谋,其次伐交,其次伐兵,其下攻城。攻城之法为不得已。

修橹轒辒 具器械、三月而后成,距闉,又三月而后已。

将不胜其忿,而蚁附之,杀士三分之一,而城不拔者,此攻之灾也。

故善用兵者,屈人之兵而非战也。

拔人之城而非攻也,破人之国而非久也,必以全争于天下,

故兵不顿,而利可全,此谋攻之法也。

故用兵之法,十则围之,五则攻之,倍则分之,敌则能战之,少则能

逃之,不若则能避之。故小敌之坚,大敌之擒也。

夫将者,国之辅也。辅周则国必强,辅隙则国必弱。

故君之所以患于军者三:不知军之不可以进而谓之进,不知军之不可

以退而谓之退,是为縻军﹔不知三军之事,而同三军之政者,则军士

惑矣﹔不知三军之权,而同三军之任,则军士疑矣。三军既惑且疑,

则诸侯之难至矣,是谓乱军引胜。

故知胜有五:

知可以战与不可以战者胜,

识众寡之用者胜,

上下同欲者胜,

以虞待不虞者胜,

将能而君不御者胜。

此五者,知胜之道也。

故曰:知己知彼,百战不贻﹔

不知彼而知己,一胜一负﹔

不知彼不知己,每战必贻。

 

Chapter 3 :

 

  Offensive Strategy Generally, in war the best policy is to take a state intact; to ruin it is inferior to this. To capture the enemy's entire army is better than to destroy it; to take intact a regiment, a company, or a squad is better than to destroy them. For to win one hundred victories in one hundred battles is not the acme of skill. To subdue the enemy without fighting is the supreme excellence. Thus, what is of supreme importance in war is to attack the enemy's strategy. Next best is to disrupt his alliances by diplomacy. The next best is to attack his army. And the worst policy is to attack cities.Attack cities only when there is no alternative because to prepare big shields and wagons and make ready the necessary arms and equipment require at least three months, and to pile up earthen ramps against the walls requires an additional three months. The general, unable to control his impatience, will order his troops to swarm up the wall like ants, with the result that one-third of them will be killed without taking the city. Such is the calamity of attacking cities. Thus, those skilled in war subdue the enemy's army without battle. They capture the enemy's cities without assaulting them and overthrow his state without protracted operations. Their aim is to take all under heaven intact by strategic considerations. Thus, their troops are not worn out and their gains will be complete. This is the art of offensive strategy. Consequently, the art of using troops is this: When ten to the enemy's one, surround him. When five times his strength, attack him. If double his strength, divide him. If equally matched, you may engage him with some good plan. If weaker numerically, be capable of withdrawing. And if in all respects unequal, be capable of eluding him, for a small force is but booty for one more powerful if it fights recklessly. Now, the general is the assistant to the sovereign of the state. If this assistance is all-embracing, the state will surely be strong; if defective, the state will certainly be weak. Now, there are three ways in which a sovereign can bring misfortune upon his army: When ignorant that the army should not advance, to order anadvance; or when ignorant that it should not retire, to order a retirement. This is described as "hobbling the army." When ignorant of military affairs, to interfere in their administration. This causes the officers to be perplexed. When ignorant of command problems, to interfere with the direction of the fighting. This engenders doubts in the minds of the officers. If the army is confused and suspicious, neighboring rulers will take advantage of this and cause trouble. This is what is meant by: "A confused army leads to another's victory." Thus, there are five points in which victory may be predicted: He who knows when he can fight and when he cannot will be victorious. He who understands how to fight in accordance with the strength of antagonistic forces will be victorious.   He whose ranks are united in purpose will be victorious. He who is well prepared and lies in wait for an enemy who is not well prepared will be victorious. He whose generals are able and not interfered with by the sovereign will be victorious. It is in these five matters that the way to victory is known. Therefore, I say: Know your enemy and know yourself; in a hundred battles, you will never be defeated. When you are ignorant of the enemy but know yourself, your chances of winning or losing are equal. If ignorant both of your enemy and of yourself, you are sure to be defeated in every battle.

 


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